Silk Road: The Silk Road was an intricate combination of trade routes than spanned Europe and Asia. As stated previously, the Silk Road saw trade occur in both directions and involved some key goods. Iran on the Silk Road. International trade was crucial for Sassanid Persians. The hot desert, high mountains and sandstorms made travelling a rough business. In the course of time, medicine, perfumes, spices and livestock found their way between continents. Most of the goods along the Silk Road were carried by caravans. Vol. Many of them would … Travelling along the route was dangerous. But it … What really caused the Silk Road was greed and the want of more land. Almost all of them are encircled by arabic calligraphy and depict European shields with a flat top and pointed base. Religion, languages and diseases also spread along the Silk Road. And each object contains a unique background and culture in the Middle East. Very few people traveled the entire length of the Silk Road. Finding Global Connections in Objects from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Arabic traders brought incense from southern Arabia and the East (Coan, 2002). It served as a way for contact between the ease and the west throughout the middle ages. By the fifth century, silk production had found its way to the middle east. The journey would be about 7000 km (4000 miles), and there were many hazards and dangers on the way. 31. It was … Silk was traded among these routes, hence the name “The Silk Road”. Eventually, the secret of silk leaked out of China. Bilateral trade between China and Middle Eastern countries—in particular the GCC countries, Iran, and Turkey—are expected to increase, along with Chinese investments in infrastructure projects throughout the region. Shiva worship and shivaling (the most sacred Hindu ceremony) began at least as early as the 8th century BCE in India. European traders probably brought the plague from Asia to Europe along the ancient road. Middle Israel: The other end of the Silk Road China holds the key to the Iranian regime’s collapse. The combination of these rare materials makes us believe that this was a valuable object and owned by a wealthy person (Eva 41). Unlike fully doomed burners in western Islamic world, this incense burner is partially hooded, which is a character that remained almost exclusively in eastern Iran-Persia area (Conan, 43). Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. For example, merchants and traders in the East transported to Europe, goods such as: silks, glass-based products, paper, spices, apples, oranges, and other foods items. Only the emperor, his family and his highest advisers were allowed to wear clothes made of silk. The kinds of products exported from China during the at-least-3,000-year history of the Silk Road changed over time, but silk was generally the most precious export. In medieval period, perfumes are high in demand in Roman, Byzantine and Islamic Empires. The Silk Road or Silk Route is an ancient network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time. These goods were in high demand by both citizens in European kingdoms as well as citizens from Asian empires. The Silk Road not only earned China a lot of money, but all along the route cities … Travelling along the route was dangerous. The chosen incense burner is particularly interesting. This bookbinding tool was made of gold, ivory, and Persian leather in Iran. As Welford explains, one reason the Silk Road was so effective in aiding spread of disease-causing microbes was that, despite its name, it wasn’t just a single route. Judging by the road’s name silk was the main commodity in the list. The Silk Road was actually a 4,000 mile long network of routes stretched westward from China across Asia's deserts and mountain ranges through the Middle East, until it reaches the Mediterranean Sea. At the time, silk was only made in China, and it was a valuable material. The Silk Road primarily refers to the land routes connecting East Asia and Southeast Asia with South Asia, Persia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and … Trading started, often with Indians as middlemen who traded silk with the Chinese in exchange for gold and silver which they got from the Romans. The Middle East itself was also a beacon of trade in the Silk Road were many exotic goods were sold either to the west or to the east. Most of the goods along the Silk Road were carried by caravans. Parthian empire in Near and Middle East was defeated in 224 and conquered by Sassanid Iran, the powerful state which managed to expand its territory considerably. During the Medieval Period, the Arabs became particularly skilled in trade on the Silk Road. Moreover, the goods provide a perfect example of how the Silk Road contributed to the spread of Middle Eastern religions and cultural identities. The route is over 6,500 km long and got its name because the early Chinese traded silk along it. The Silk Road has been considered by many historians as one of the most important and well known trade networks of the Ancient through the medieval times. Silk Road, also called Silk Route, ancient trade route, linking China with the West, that carried goods and ideas between the two great civilizations of Rome and China. In the early Middle Ages traffic along the route decreased because of the decline of the Roman Empire. A record of “scale fees”, which are taxes based on the weight of an item, from Gaochang Kingdom in … (Yingzi Huang), Middle Eastern Trade Goods on the Silk Road, The Benin Kingdom and Early Afro-European Relations. The Middle East itself was also a beacon of trade in the Silk Road were many exotic goods were sold either to the … The … This let China trade with the Middle East and the Mediterranean world. China also received Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism (from India) via the Silk Road. In Mamluk Syria from 1250-1516, small candlesticks were made. For Agatha Kratz, Associate Policy Fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations Asia and China programme, OBOR is open to anyone and any country interested, at least on paper. Burning of incense have a long tradition in Islamic cultures, like for private or public ceremony purposes, but it is rarely used in religious settings (Museum placard, MFA). To preserve their favorable position, they did not allow direct trading on a large scale between the nations of the Mediterranean Basin and the nations of Central and East/Southeast Asia. Cooks valued the plant because of the resin they gathered from its roots and stalk that when dried became a powder that blended the flavors of onion and garlic. The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes, formally established during the Han Dynasty of China, which linked the regions of the ancient world in commerce between 130 BCE-1453 CE.As the Silk Road was not a single thoroughfare from east to west, the term 'Silk Routes’ has become increasingly favored by historians, though 'Silk Road’ is the more common … Without the Silk Road, these materials would never have come together to create such a beautiful tool. One of the main commodities traded on this road was silk. During the Age of Exploration the Silk Road lost its importance because new sea routes to Asia were discovered. The candles offer wishes for wealth, power, and good fortune to the object’s owner (Sheila 67). For centuries this served as the link between Europe with the rest of Asia, as well as Africa. This does … It is very interesting and important for people nowadays to understand the significance of the Middle East as connecting factor to the Silk Road. On the other hand, other goods moved to the east (towards China), such as: grapes, cotton, gold, silver, … The Arabs traded cinnamon from Ceylon, black pepper from India, as well as dealing with … Trade resembled a chain, with each trader and segment of the trade route representing a link in the chain. The Silk Road reached its height in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries CE … (Konstantinos Mitsotakis), Baer, Eva. By the 2nd century BCE, the famous “Silk Road” out of India had reached the Middle East and Mediterranean Sea. The overland portion of the Silk Road was actually a set of paths that split and reconnected across the steppes of Central Asia, almost like the blood vessels of the human body or the veins in plant leaves. The Silk Road is a name given to the many trade routes that connected Europe and the Mediterranean with the Asian world. The Silk Road … This quiz tests your knowledge about the famous trade route that connected China, India, and the Mediterranean world in medieval times. Yet, it does follow two clearly conceptualised but very vaguely defined and delimited routes: the terrestrial Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. The three sections of the Silk Road trade routes are: 1) an eastern section beginning in Chang'ary China, ... Persia, Middle East lncense Southern Arabia Household slaves, pets, arena animals, exotic furs, cashmere wool, raw and finished cotton, spinach, sandalwood, palm oil, cane sugar, perfumes, gems, gold, ivory, opium, glass and stone beads lndia Cinnamon lndia, Sri Lanka … The Silk Road was a network of trade routes which connected the East and West, and was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions between these regions from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century. People in the Middle East are highly skilled in cultivating plants to produce perfumes, and trading perfumes made the Dead Sea region extremely rich (Michel 52). Historical Perspectives on Trade and Risk on the Silk Road, Middle East and China @article{inar2015HistoricalPO, title={Historical Perspectives on Trade and Risk on the Silk Road, Middle East and China}, author={E. Çinar and Katherine Geusz and J. Johnson}, journal={Topics in Middle Eastern andNorth African Economies}, year={2015}, volume={17} } E-book ed., Oxford UP. Although silk was the main trading item there were many other goods that travelled along the Silk Road between Eastern Asia and Europe. Along that network there were variou… Albany, NY: State U of New York Press, 1983. The Silk Road was a group of trade routes that went across Asia to the Mediterranean Sea. Blair, Sheila S., Jonathan Bloom, and Richard Ettinghausen. The Silk Road in World History. Even in the beginning of our era the Silk Road connected such powerful ancient empires as Rome, Parthia, Kushan and China. The Silk Road (a term coined by German geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen in the late 19th century) was by no means a single road, but a complex network of trade routes, both terrestrial and maritime, which connected the Mediterranean … How did all the Hinduism reach the Middle East so long ago? Thanks to its light weight, compactness, enormous demand and high price it was ideal for trade and long-distance transportation. The Silk Road crossed the region, and it could have channeled migration along the east-west axis of Eurasia. The Silk Road was the ultimate trade route that dominated Eurasia. Silk went westward, and wools, gold, and silver went east. The hot desert, high mountains and sandstorms made travelling a rough business. Historical Perspectives on Trade and Risk on the Silk Road, Middle East and China E. Mine Cinar, Katherine Geusz, and Joseph Johnson Loyola University Chicago JEL Codes: N25, N23, F10, F39 Keywords: Historical Silk Road, China, international trade, risk Abstract: In this paper we examine historical trends in the Silk Road where we discuss historical trade risks, Chinese dynasties and trade… Merchants and Missionaries in a Globalizing World. Metalwork in Medieval Islamic Art. Later on there were fewer hardships to overcome, but by no means was it easy. The goods carried on the Silk Road moved basically from the East to the West. Silk fabrics were also made in Iran, so Persians would get the material such as silk from the east, and sell the finished product to the westerners. The Chinese learned to make silk thousands of years ago. Print. Print. Most recently, the Belt & Road Initiative, the most ambitious and far-reaching project of its kind, is bringing unprecedented potentials in cross-border trade and investment between China and the Africa, Middle East region. In the Middle Ages the Venetian merchant Marco Polo named the caravan routes silk roads. Corpus ID: 30087270. For a long time they were the only ones who knew how to make this precious material. The Middle East’s main role in China’s Silk Road initiatives is to provide new markets and opportunities for China’s excess industrial capacity. It was called the Silk Road because silk was traded along it. We chose to define the Middle Ages of this region by the time period that the Silk Road was active. Ahmedabad: Mapin Pub., 2002. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library, 2008. To become the world leader it evidently wants and deserves to be, Beijing should turn that key. The Silk Road consisted of several trade routes between China and Europe. The Silk Road, the all-important trade route between China and … Cairo, Damascus and Aleppo were important trade cities between the Mediterranean world and the East (Xinru, 29). Each one of these objects reflects the goods traded by the Arabic merchants, such as copper, gold, ivory, aromatic substances (Baer, 80). (Jack Kelly), Conan, Michel. Documents from Turfan support this view. The Middle East benefitted from the Silk Road greatly in culture, economics, and politics. One such example can be found in wild silphion which was gathered in Northern Africa and traded along the Silk Road to create one of the foundations of the wealth of Carthage and Kyrene. Impact of the Silk Road on the Middle East The Silk Road is an ancient legacy that spread ideas, knowledge, goods, and religion throughout Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Buddhism, which originated in India, spread to China along this route. Print. Through the Silk Road… The ancient Romans were the first Europeans who became aware of this wonderful material. (Christian Hyon), Liu, Xinru. Gold was very valuable all over the world and portrayed an image of wealth. The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250-1800. These routes crossed mountains, deserts, valleys, and oceans. For a long time the Chinese guarded this secret very carefully. Some spices of African origin that were traded along the Silk Road have become extinct. The Sogdians had control of commerce in the Turk Empire; they dominated the Silk Road trade in East Turkestan in the seventh and eighth centuries (Skaff 475). In fact, only quite a few merchants would travel all the way from the Mediterranean to China and get back. Middle East garden traditions unity and diversity: questions, methods and resources in a multicultural perspective. Take the Quiz: The Silk Road. Silk was very valuable at this time. For centuries this served as the link between Europe with the rest of Asia, as well as Africa. Over the centuries people settled along the ancient route and many cities emerged. The ivory was most likely imported from somewhere in Africa and traded along the Silk Road. Through the Silk Road traders, people were able to trade goods through this vast network of roads that extended from Central Europe to Central China (Xinru, 11). Out of all the goods traded there were some that caught our groups attention, such as candlesticks and perfume sprinklers from Syria, as well as a incense burner and bookbinding tools from other parts of the Middle East. Trading along the Silk Road and became stronger again between the 13th and 14th centuries, when the Mongols controlled central Asia. The Middle East has always been considered a very crucial geographic area for trade because it was necessary for almost all traders go through the areas of the Levante. Trading started, often with Indians as middlemen who traded silk with the Chinese in exchange for gold and silver which they got from the Romans. This extracted aromatic oils are used for cosmetic, medical and religious purposes. “As such,” Kratz told MEMO, “countries most targeted by the OBOR initiative are those on these two roads. How did politics affect the Silk Road during the "Middle Ages"? No one in the world even knew about it or how to make it. These characteristics suggest that they were intended for export to Europe. The reasoning behind this choice was because t he Silk Road led to an age of new ideas and commodities across a vast amount of land not known to China previously, which could be considered the Asian equivalent … Besides the spreading of Islamic culture, some of these goods appear to have textual elements and special artistic techniques which proves that many craftsmen integrate either European or Asian elements (Blair, 9) which made the Middle Eastern trade goods distinct and memorable. It was … The rich cities of Europe had a high demand for textiles spices and drugs available in Mamluk bazaars which were traded for wood, glass, silver and copper. The Silk Road was not an actual road, but a 4,000-mile long network of trade routes that connected China to Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. Traders sometimes brought goods from one destination on the Silk Road to another, from where the goods would be transported by someone else. And because perfumes were mostly excluded for the rich and the upper class, Islamic perfume sprinklers are carefully crafted with a long and thin neck and decorated with unique aesthetic vines or symbols. Interactive Grammar and Vocabulary Exercises. By the second century C.E., silk was being produced in India, and a few centuries later, in Japan. The Silk Road consisted of several unpaved routes that connected Asia and India with Europe and the Mediterranean. The Middle East has always been considered a very crucial geographic area for trade because it was necessary for almost all traders go through the areas of the Levante. Wishes for wealth, power, and it was a valuable material hence the name “ the Road... As connecting factor to the Iranian regime ’ s name Silk was traded among these routes, the... 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